Before the call war women and minorities were not allowed to pursue higher education and were discouraged to study the sciences because of their lack of Intelligence. However, Margaret Washburn was the first woman to graduate with a doctorate In psychology studying with Ethylene In the area of visual Imagery on tactile sensitivity, (Goodwin, 2008). Dry. Washburn went on to become the president of the American Psychology Association in 1921 (Goodwin, 2008).
African Americans were referred to as a “beast of burden” as was thought of as being even more inferior than the lowly female and it was the life that that if African Americans were educated it would encourage them to think about freedom ( Goodwin, 2008). During the post-civil war era African American’s were allowed to attend a limited number of separate but equal schools, most attained teaching degrees and returned to their communities as teachers.
Those African American’s who did earn an advanced degree in psychology according to Goodwin (2008), had a very limited opportunity to use their degrees other than teaching at a “black college”. Francis Sumner was the first African American to earn a doctorate degree in psychology in 1920 (Goodwin, 2008). Because of the school of thought at the time in the 19th century of the superiority of the white male’s women and people of color were not granted the opportunity to pursue a higher education in the case of African American no education at all.
They were treated marginally and living on the fringe of society as having no value as a human being at all. Women and people of color were disenfranchised and deem to have little or nothing to offer. Many African Americans credit W. E. Dubious as being the first African American psychology because he wrote so eloquent about the psychological struggles of African American in his classic work entitled The Souls of Black Folk’s.
The omission of women and people of color from the field of psychology, any psychology results would not have been an accurate because of the blabs of the studies; over half of the population was not included. Reference: Contributions of African Americans to the Held of Psychology Shells R. Black, Susie A. Spence and Gasify R. Omar Journal of Black Studies Volvo. 35, No. 1 (Seep. , 2004), up. 40_64 Goodwin, C. (2008). A History of Modern Psychology, 3rd Deed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, By Sandy beyond simple reading and writing it would have a dangerous effects would be not e good for a women health ( Goodwin, 2008).
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