Assessment of synthetic milk exposure to children of selected population in Uttar Pradesh, India Shuchi R. Bhatt1, Dr. Anita Singh2 and S. M. Bhatt3 (Abstract) The present study was carried out keeping in view the recently emerging concern of the adulteration of the natural milk with the synthetic milk. Synthetic milk is prepared by emulsifying vegetable oils with appropriate amount of detergent and urea. Samples of the natural milk with synthetic milk were analyzed for concentration of urea and detergent and their effect is assayed through survey in different population in Uttar Pradesh, India.
Children’s had different range of intake of milk. Children of age group 1-5 years consumes about 50-250 mg of milk daily, while of age group 6-18 years of children consumes about 250-1000 ml milk/day and children’s of age group 19-22 consumes milk about 500-1000 ml milk /day. Addition of synthetic milk is on large scale in Meerut district of U. P. and mostly urea in such milk creating huge problem of headache, eyesight and diarrhea in children. Keywords: Milk adulteration; Synthetic milk, detection, urea 1.
Scholar, Faculty of H. Sc, Sri. A. K. A. P. G. Collage Varanasi. Head, Department of Food & Nutrition, Sri. Agrasen Kanya Autonomous P. G. College. Parmanandpur, Varanasi. School of Biochemical Engineering, Institule of Technology B. H. U. Varanasi. Corresponding Author Email: [email protected] co. in 1 Introduction Liquid milk is an essential nutritional food for infants as well as the aged. Adulteration of natural milk with a chemically synthesized milky liquid (synthetic milk) is a matter of serious concern.
The dairy industry employs various checks these tests commonly include determination of fat and total solids by chemical or physical analyses; estimation of sediment by forcing milk through filter pads and noting the residue left; determination of Bacterial count and determination of freezing point etc. (Dean, 1985; Fox, 1992). However, most of these measurements are expensive and time consuming like measurement of conductance (Mebrook & Petty 2003 a and b; Willard et al 2003). Synthetic milk is an excellent imitation of natural milk.
Milk fat is mimicked by vegetable oil; the nitrogen component in milk is mimicked by urea; detergents are added to make it frothy. This mixture is so expertly prepared that the specific gravity of the concocted milk is the same as natural buffalo milk. This mixture is then mixed with natural milk in varying proportions. Such milk can be processed into ‘‘value added’’ products which bring in a bigger profit. A recent Indian Council of Medical research (ICMR) report has suggested that such adulterated items have a cancerous effect on the human system and can lead to gradual impairment of the body.
Milk is a complex mixture of water, lactose, fat, protein, minerals, and vitamins distributed throughout colloidal and soluble phases. Although the cow is the principal source of milk for human consumption in the United States and many other parts of the world (DePeters 1992). In India most milk is 2 obtained from the buffalo. The composition of milk from buffalo is water (82. 14%), fat (7. 44%), protein (4. 78%), lactose (4. 8%) and ash (0. 83%) (Rangappa & Achary, 1973).
On average milk has optimum level of urea and other chemicals but due to habit of making huge profit there is on going malpractice of using synthetic milk in the original milk. Therefore there is need to work out regularly in different region of India to expose such malpractices and to check such malpractices adapted ignoring health concerns of people. The effect of urea on animal reproductive system has been carried out by Ropstad etal 1987. They reported that reproduction system and reproductive cycle in animals get badly affected by high concentration of urea.
This work is carried out to expose and to increase the awareness among people to decline such malpractices adapted, since it is difficult to detect such harmful adulterants in dangerous amount in household. One quick method describe in the article is to check the pH of the milk by pH paper (red turns blue) that is available freely and can’t be adjusted quickly at large scale. Material and method Survey Preschool (1-5 years) and school going (6-18 years) children in urban and rural area from different district of U. P. had been surveyed.
A total of 365 household were surveyed in which 70 children’s were of age group 1-5 years, 150 children’s were of age group 6-18 years, and 145 children’s were of age group 19-22 years. Since it was household survey, the homemaker of the household was interviewed for intake of milk. The region of study selected was Varanasi, Bulandsahar, Meerut and Mathura. Thus, 365 individuals in urban area and 365 in rural area were surveyed. The milk were 3 collected from the household and tested for presence of urea and detergent. The frequency method was employed for calculation.
The survey includes consumption of milk/day, their effect on health such as headache, eyesight problem, and diarrhea. Also, 160 sample of the milk were collected from different local market, vendors, and stalls of Bulandsahar, Mathura, Meerut, and Varanasi. Qualitative analysis for urea detection Qualitative analysis for urea detection were done by the method describe below . Took 5 ml of milk in a test tube. Added 20 mg of Soya bean powder & 2 drops of 0. 5 % aqueous solution of Bromothymol blue. Mixed the sample well. The development of Blue colour after 10 min indicates the addition of urea the sample.
For confirmatory test was done by adding five ml of milk with 5 ml paradimethyl amino benzaldehyde (16%). If the solution turns yellow in colour, then the given sample of milk is added with urea. Quantitative analysis for urea detection A quantitative estimate of urea was carried out by preparing standard of urea and their pH variation and by utilizing Urease enzyme. For this we took 5 ml of milk in a test tube and added 0. 2 ml of urease (20 mg / ml) and centrifuged it well at room temperature. Now added 0. 1 ml of bromothymol blue solution (0. 5%). The appearance of blue colour after 10-15 min indicates the adulteration milk with urea.
Urease can be obtained by adding 4 soybean slurry (source of urease prepared by soaking soybeans overnight or for 12 hours in water and grinding to prepare a slurry). (Dean J. A 1985) The OD of sample was taken in UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (ELICO double beam) at 420 nm. And pH was measured by pH meter using buffer sample set at pH 4. In the presence of urea the red litmus paper turns blue. Urea Standard Solution was prepared by following method – (a) Stock solution concentration was 5 mg / ml. Dissolved 50 gm reagent grade urea in water and dilute to 1 litre with water. b) Working solution was prepared by Pipetting 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 ml stock solution into 250 ml volumetric flask and dilute to volume with phosphate buffer. (c) Reference solution – standard solution was containing 1. 0 mg urea / 5 ml as reference standard. Figure caption Fig. 1 showing variation of pH with different concentration of urea Fig. 2 showing variation of urea and detergent in different region of Uttar Pradesh India Fig. 3 showing children affected by synthetic milk in different age group
Eyesight ; and
Figures Urea 5 4 Urea % (w/v) 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 pH Fig. 1 showing variation of pH with different concentration of urea 60 Urban Rural % of Urea and detergent adultrants 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bulandsahar Mathura Meerut Varanasi Fig. 2 showing variation of urea and detergent in different region of Uttar Pradesh India 6 Headache 40 35 30 Urban Rural 60 50 Eye sight problem Urban Rural % of sample 25 20 15 10 5 0 1-5 6-18 19-22 % of sample 40 30 20 10 0 1-5 6-18 19-22 age group Age group (a) (b) % of children affected by problem of Diarrhea 60 50 Urban Rural % of total sample 40 30 20 10 0 1-5 6-18 19-22 Age group (c) Fig. showing children affected by synthetic milk in different age group
Eyesight ; and
Tables Table-1 showing different constituents of milk CONSTITUENTS Water Lipid in emulion phase ( mixture of mixed triglecerides) Phospolipids ( lacithine, Cephaline, ) STEROLS carotenoids vit. A, D. E. K Protiens (Casein) B- Lactoglobulin Lactoalbumin Albumin, Psuedoglobulin etc Enzymes ( Catalase, Peroxidase, Amylase, Lipase, Protease) DESSOLVED MATERIALS Carbohydraetes Lactose Glocose ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ION & SALTS Calcium Phosphate Citrate Chloride, Sodium, Pottasium, Magnesium etc.
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