Such political system is called Monarchy. In political science, monarchy is a form of government, in which a ruler (a king, an emperor, a sultan, etc.) has the highest power to rule the country solely. Usually such rulers inherit their right to be in power, as well as the right to remain in office for life. Monarchy is arguably the oldest form of government, which takes source from hereditary leadership in ancient tribal communities. Historically, monarchy was more focused and effective form of government than aristocracy and democracy.
There are several types of monarchy. Absolute monarchy is the form of government which can be characterized by almost unlimited power of the ruler, including the right to change or withdraw the constitution. Constitutional monarchy is a type of monarchy, in which the power of the ruler is bounded by constitution, country’s parliament is the legislature, and government is the executive. Also, there are parliamentary monarchy, dualistic monarchy, elective monarchy, and theocratic monarchy.
The most known examples of monarchy are the dynasties of French and Russian Kings (the 9th – 19th centuries), as well as the members of the British Royal Family. Lately, such form of government as democracy prevails on global level, leaving only symbolic functions to the institution of monarchy. Nevertheless, there are still fully functional monarchies in such countries as Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Brunei, etc. Other known constitutional monarchies include Great Britain, Spain, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Thailand, Japan and many others.
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