Immunization: Health Care Delivery

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO). Nowadays, this is one of the global issues that experts are trying to solve on how they can help each individual to attain this stage, which in the end they across of finding ways on how an individual will be able to achieve this goal. That is through immunization. Immunizations are used to protect the human body against preventable diseases. Immunizations are usually given in the form of a shot or vaccine.
When one gets immunized, the body develops the ability to fight off a given disease. Immunizations safeguard the body from illnesses and death caused by certain infectious diseases. Some immunizations are given to prevent a single disease, while others will take care of two or three diseases. Immunizations help control infectious diseases that were once common. They have reduced, and in many cases, eliminated, diseases that routinely killed or harmed infants, children, and adults.
However, the viruses and bacteria that cause vaccine-preventable disease and death still exist and can be passed on to people who are not immunized. Children need immunizations to protect them from dangerous childhood diseases. How can this be possible for everybody? That was answered by World Health Organization, when they initiated the Expanded Program on Immunization in May 1974 with the objective to vaccinate children throughout the world.

Ten years later, in 1984, the WHO established a standardized vaccination schedule for the original EPI vaccines: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT), oral polio, and measles. Increased knowledge of the immunologic factors of disease led to new vaccines being developed and added to the EPI’s list of recommended vaccines: Hepatitis B (HepB), yellow fever in countries endemic for the disease, and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis (Hib) conjugate vaccine in countries with high burden of disease.
In 1999, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) was created with the sole purpose of improving child health in the poorest countries by extending the reach of the EPI. The GAVI brought together a grand coalition, including the UN agencies and institutions (WHO, UNICEF, the World Bank), public health institutes, donor and implementing countries, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and The Rockefeller Foundation, the vaccine industry, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and many more.
The creation of the GAVI has helped to renew interest and maintain the importance of immunizations in battling the world’s large burden of infectious diseases. The current goals of the EPI are: to ensure full immunization of children under one year of age in every district, to globally eradicate poliomyelitis, to reduce maternal and neonatal tetanus to an incidence rate of less than one case per 1,000 births by 2005, to cut in half the number of measles-related deaths that occurred in 1999, and to extend all new vaccine and preventive health interventions to children in all districts in the world.
In addition, the GAVI has set up specific milestones to achieve the EPI goals: that by 2010 all countries have routine immunization coverage of 90% of their child population, that HepB be introduced in 80% of all countries by 2007 and that 50% of the poorest countries have Hib vaccine by 2005. In each of the United Nations’ member states, the individual national governments create and implement their own policies for vaccination programs following the guidelines set by the EPI.
Setting up an immunization program is multifaceted and contains many complex components including a reliable cold chain system, transport for the delivery of the vaccines, maintenance of vaccine stocks, training and monitoring of health workers, outreach educational programs to inform the public, and a means of documenting and recording which child receives which vaccines.
At the local level, implementation of the health care delivery system has been given greater responsibility to the local government Unit (LGU) by virtue of the Local Government Code of 1991, the Magna Carta for health workers for Republic Act 7305 in 1992, and the barangay health workers benefits in Incentives Act of 1995. The latter act provides for training volunteer workers as well as minimal incentives to convince them to help run barangay health station or centers. This volunteer will assist in clerical tasks and minor health procedures, such as weighing and measuring patients and malnutrition mitigating activities.
However, this workers do it in this context that the study was conceptualize the results of the study may provide an assessment of the status of the health care delivery system and immunization status of children whose ages are 0 to 12 months old in Barangay San Juan- San Ramon of Municipality of Camaligan, Camarines Sur. The research finding can be a basis and inputs to the Local Government Units of Camaligan and Barangay San Juan- San Ramon in planning and implementation of barangay health care delivery system.
Furthermore, allocation of Local Government Units (LGUs) budget or expenditure priority can also be guided towards a more responsive allocation level of health services. Results of the study may also contribute towards awareness building and educating the barangay residence about preventive health care. In terms of capacity building, the Local Government Unit (LGU) and the National Government will be given one basis for their technical support and training program for the health care workers to better improved the capacity to perform their jobs.
After all, an empowered and well trained social health care work force will improved the delivery of community health care and reduce the number of children from preventable illnesses such as measles, malaria, diarrhea, malnutrition, and acute respiratory infection. Providing care for the children is really important. They will live to grow into adulthood and eventually become the future adult citizens. To ensure a productive future for these children, they must be protected from heavy childhood diseases which can be prevented through immunization.
Presidential Decree No. 996 stated about “providing for compulsory basic immunization for infants and children below 8 years of age”. Immunization is one of the most important preventive management that should be done and given to infants in the first few months of his life. Estimates reveal that diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and measles are responsible for the deaths of about 5 million children every year in developing countries.
These diseases are preventable through immunization with a handful of vaccines that can be given within the first year of a child’s life. Immunization has been recognized and accepted as one of the most important components in the prevention and control of communicable diseases. Immunization is a basic health service; therefore it is integrated into the healthcare delivery service of the ministry of health. With the assistance of UN children’s fund and WHO, the ministry of ealth launches the expanded program on immunization objective of reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of the EPI mentioned by increasing the proportion of fully immunized children in their first year of life. The researchers are fully aware and knowledgeable about the immunization that will provide maximal immunity to Expanded Program on Immunization diseases before a child’s first birthday. The respondents are well exposed to immunization activities for they have volunteered and participated in the community’s activity program. Thus, they can well undertake the study.

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