History of Hong Kong Art Village

(Eng. Summary) andrew lam (The section “History of Oil Street Architecture” was published in Hong Kong Economic Journal 2000-03-27) The First Stage – “The Oil Street” Period During the 17 months from August 1998 to the end of 1999, the Government Property Agency rented an abandoned governmental building at Oil Street, North Point to architects, designers, photographers, individual artists and art groups at a rental rate as low as HK$ 2. 5 / square ft. It gradually served as the nurturing ground for art education, creative industries and various kinds of exhibitions and performances. 3 large-scale art and culture festivals have taken place in the Art Village. More than 100 exhibitions and performances, which attracted more than 30,000 audiences, have been held throughout the year. The nature of activities were diverse to include theatre work, dance, folk art, ink painting, calligraphy, installation, photography, sculpture, painting, multi-media, video art, digital art, architecture, fashion design, performance art and music concert.
The Oil Street Art Village was a cultivated space, which fostered local economies, creative industries and international art and cultural exchange activities. It attracted creative and enthusiastic individuals to involve and to arouse the interest of local and overseas press. The total area of the Oil Street building was 125,000 square ft. The gross floor area was estimated to be 160,000 square ft. 33 art groups and workshops, and more than 100 artists were stationed in the Art Village; while more than 721 artists and 3,000 art group members involved in various activities (it is approximately 30% of HK art field).
More than 60,000 square ft. area served as performing space, rehearsal room, working area, and storage. The abandoned property was positively activated. In that short period of time, the art and culture industry built up a good partnership with the SAR government: the Art Village was recognized and supported by HKADC. In 98-99, the Planning Department pointed out that Oil Street Art Village was a successful model for land use transferral. All of the above prove that HK citizens urgently need the full support of the government to assist running a non-governmental and independent art village.

It serves as a window and an opportunity for local art and cultural workers to showcase the power of creative culture. This is the gateway to develop Hong Kong into the brand new “art and cultural centre” in Asia, and to raise the image of HK in the global level. In 2000, the SAR government planned to sell the land through auction. Various units in the Art Village moved out and the land has been abandoned until today. Not only was the Oil Street Art Village destroyed, but the SAR government also lost nearly HK$ 10,000,000 of rental income since 2000.
The Second Stage – “Cheung Sha Wan Warehouse” & Old Kai Tak Aiport Period The ex-slaughterhouse in Cheung Sha Wan and the ex-Kai Tak Airport Office Tower was temporarily let to Oil Street Art Village by the Government Property Agency. However, the space provided was not suitable for artistic activities. Many workshops and art groups such as 1aspace, Videotage, On and On Theatre, Zuni Icosahedron/Z+ etc. retreated or their activities suspended. Such a “hybernated” situation lasted for at least 1 and a half years. During the period, some art studio was transferred to Old Kai Tat
Airport venue and the studio of Tsui Pui Wan had organized an installation, which attracted wide public participation. The Third Stage – To Kwa Wan “Cattle Depot Artist Village” (CDAV) Period In July 2001, the Government Property Agency rented a renovated government property, the ex-quarantine station for animals (63 Ma Tau Kok Road, To Kwa Wan) to individual art groups and artists. Most of the architecture in the station is heritage. Some are over 100 years old. Units and Cultural activities in CDAV The total area of CDAV is 7,394. 93 square metres.
It has 19 stationed art groups: Zuni Icosehedron, Ngau Pang Shue Sue Yuen, Artist Commune 63 Museum, Videotage, 1aspace, Frog King Museum, (szOf)-Tsui Pui Wan, Wee Design, Photo China. CC, Cut_N_try Workshop, Billy & Suzies, Tim Tsz Workshop, Possive Null Workshop, Kum Chi Keung Workshop, Steve Cheung-Work Zone, 2/3 Studio, N4 and so forth. Main publications in these two years include: “E+E” by Ngau Pang Sue Yuen,…. and many exhibition catalogues. Significant exhibitions held included “Tree. Man”: Danny Yung Solo Exhibition Tree Man in 2003, CADV held large-scale art festival, such as Cattle Depot Summer Days & Nights Arts Festival 2003.
The studio zero O fish organized Summer Workshop 02, etc. The Book Festival was co-organized by Zuni Ngau Pang Sue Yuen and 1aspace with participation of 22 cultural organizations. It attracted more than 20,000 local citizens and book lovers. The Artist Commune has also organized many societal and cultural exchange programs. In the future, the CDAV will develop as a non-profit making charity (NGO). We are also planning to make the best use of spaces in the village as a platform for experimenting civil art education and creative cultural industries, and as a channel to consolidate different social sectors and governmental departments.
The CDAV will be the new fountainhead of Hong Kong culture, and it will foreshadow and set an example to evaluate the idea of the operation of the proposed West Kowloon Cultural District. City globalization and synchronization bring about the building of skyscrapers, highways, airports, etc… Organizing international biennial, triennial, exposition and other great cultural events become inevitable in internationalization. The CDAV has long been a localized phenomenon, we pose the questions of globalization versus regionalism. In reality, there are 4 alternative spaces and 15 independent studios in the CDAV.
For the past 2 years, they actively organized a great many of individual programs. They also organized joint events like community workshops and territory-wide art festivals. This proposal will present open studio project to create A CONCEPTUAL ‘COMPUTER HUB’ WHICH RE-UNIFIES THE WHOLE CDAV AGAIN. [1] The Experiment The Hong Kong CDAV is not a conventional museum for cultural display. It is an alternative space: a 7,394 sq meters art village with visual art and theatre group, big companies and individual studios living in symbiosis.
In reality there are dreams and conflicts, expectations and competitions. Urgency and stability are side by side. In meeting this global event, the proposed CDAV project will not be a fabrication of un-real situation. In preparing for the exhibition, no pre-fabricated unit or exhibition system will be re-assembled in another site for exhibition. The studios of the CDAV is like ‘A MICROSCOPE’. It helps the international audience TO UNCOVER A WORLD OF ADVENTURE, EXPERIMENTATION, DISCOVERY AND WONDERS in the CDAV. There is NO GLASS OR INSTRUMENT USED TO MAGNIFY OR DISTORT FACT AND REALITY.
Every object has to be viewed in actual size! Like the Berlin Biennale 2004, The CDAV studios portray reality and the CDAV artists provide such a visual excursion with a LIFE MANUAL. They themselves are the best exhibition documents and interpreters. BEYOND THE FRAME WE PROVIDE A NEW SPACE WHICH EXTENDS THE CONVENTIONAL PHYSICAL & CONCEPTUAL BOUNDARY OF AN EXHIBITION WITHIN THE ALREADY-EXISTING AND DEFINED AREA OF STUDIOS IN THE CDAV. The artists working in the CDAV studios take the opportunity to develop creative dialogue and exchange with the international curators and artists.
The CDTV project will be in an interesting dialogue by using site-specific studio works showing artistic development from initial stage to final production, from conceptual building to theory formulation, from pre-exhibition studio discourse to post-exhibition debate. (???? ¦?????? ) ???????????????????? 2000-03-27 ?????????????????? 2004-06????? ??? ????????? (1999? ) ??????? (2003-2006) ????????????? (1999) 1999? 11? 9? ??????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???? > ???????????? 006 2> ???????? 007 3> ?????????????? 007 4> ?????????????? 015 5> ?????? 016 6> ????????????????? 021 ?? : ???????????? 023 ????????? 025 ?????? 046 ???????????? ???????????????????????????? :?????????????????? …????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????????????????????? ???????? ????? ,?????????????? ,????? (3? )??? (1? )??? (6? );?????? (2? )???????? (1? )??????? 1? ,???????????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????? ,??????? ;???????? ,?????????????????? ,???????? ;???????? ,???????????????? ,???????????? ,?????????????????? ??????????? ,??????????????????????? ,????? ,?????????? ???? 2???? ,??????????? ,??????????????? ,???????????? ,????????? :?????????? ,??????????? ,??????????? ,?????? ,?????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????? ,?????? ;?? ,???????????????????? ,????????????????? ,??????? ,?????????????? ,???????????? 1990? ,???????????? (????? ),?????????????????? ,??????????????????? ,?????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ,???????????? ,???????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,????????????? ?????? ,????? ,???????????? [2] ?????????????? ?????????????? ,????????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????? ,????? ,???? ,???????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????? ,???????????????? ,?????? 2. 75?????????????? ????????????????? 15???? ,????? 12? 5???? ,?????????? 31? ,???????????????????? 6????? ?? ????????????? Kwok and Cho????????????? Z+? Workzone??????????????????????????? Raymond Lau? Wong Chi Fei? Lily & Workshop? Qwert & Parallax Workshop? Xtreme Creative? Michael Chan Architects? James Wong & Andrew Lam? Vivian Lam? Ashley Hempsall? Tom Tong? May + Ling?
Rensis Ho? Bone Wong??????????? Tim? Billy and Suzie? Edge? 1a???????? Ringo Tang? 31?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 721? ,??????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3? ,???? 100????? ,??????????? 30,000??????????? ,??????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????? ,???????????????????? [3]???????????? ,????????????????? ,???????????? ,???????????? ?? ???????????? ,???????????????????????????????????? ,???????????? ,??????????? ?? ?????????? ,?????????????? : 1. ??????????????????? ,????????????????????? (?? :???????????????????????? )? 2.???? ?????????????? 2a?????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ,????????? ,?????????? ,? 2b?????? ,???????????????????????? ?????????? : ???????????????? ?????????? ,?????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ,??????????????????????? ,????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,?????????? (??????? )????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,??????????????????????? (???????????? ,????????????? 2,000? ,?????? ) ???????????? : ??????? ????????? ,???????? ,?????????????????????????????????????? 180?? ,?? (? )????? (? )????? (? )?????? (? )????????????????????????? (? )????? (? ????? (? )?????????? ,?????????????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????? ;?????????? ,?????????????????? ,???????? ?????????? ????????????? ,??????? ,???????? ,??????????????? ;??????? ,???????????????????????????? ,?????? ,????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????? ?????????????? ,?????? ,?????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????? ,??????????????????????? ????????????????????? ??? ,?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????? 1A???? ,????????????? Z+??????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????? ,???????????????? ,????????????? ,????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????? ,???????????????????? (C? D? ),????? ,???????????? ,????????????? ,??????????????? ,?????????????? ,???????????? (Machine Aesthetic)??????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ,? 1998? 8????? 16?? ?????? 2. 75? 1??????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????? 16???? ,????? 12? 5???? ,??????????????? 30? ,????????????????????????????? 6???? ,??????????????????? ???????????????????????? ,??????????????? ,??????????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ???????????? ??????? 2000???????? ,?????????????? ,?????? :?????????????????? ,???? 12? 15???????????????????????? ,????????????? ,??????????????????????????? ,??????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? 1998??????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????? ,????????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ,??????????????????? ,??????????? ,???????????????? 98????? ,??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ,??????? ,???? 1893???? 12???????? ,????????? [4] ???????? ,??????????? ,??????????????????????????? Victoria Regata Club????? ,????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,?????????? [5],?????????????????????? (E. M. Hazeland) [6],??? 1908? 3? 21??????? (Sir Frederick Lugard)???? ;?? ,?????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????? (Club House),??????? ???????????????? ,????????????? ,???????? ??????????????????? ,??????????? ,????????????? ,????????? ;???????????? ,???? ,???????????????? ????????????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????? ,?????? ,????????????????? ,????????? ,????????? ;????????????????????????????? ,?? 19????????????? (Arts & Crafts Movement)???????????????? [7];????????? ,?????????????? (1905? )?????? (1913? )????????? (1915? )??????????????????????? ,??????? ,???????? ,??????????? ,???????? [8]1965? ,?????????????????????? – ??? 1992? 10? ,???????? ??????????????????????????????? 1999? 11????????????? ,????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????? 1939?? 1964??????? 1939???? ,????? 1950????? ?? 941????????? ,???????????????????????? ,???????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????? : i) ????????????? 1969?? (DYN1XB1B),??????????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????? 1969? ; ii) ????????????? 1945-64? 1:2,400????? (HKR. S. No. 846(320)-D & S No. 1, Plan 1),??? A????????? ,B ? C???? ,???? ,?? A???? 1964?? 1969???? ; iii) ?????????????????? 1950????? :,??????????????????? ,??????????????????? (?? ),?????? (B? )???????????? ,?????????? 50???? ; iv) ???????? 50,000?????????? ,???? 1945? 50? ,????????????????????? ,??????????? 1950?? v) 1939?????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????? ,???? ????? (Kellet Island)????????????????????? ??? ,????????????????????? ,?????? ,???? 39????? 50?? ,? 10???? ,?????????? ; vi) ????????? 1939? 103?????? ,?????? : 1939? 4? 26??????? ,????????????? 16???????????? ,???????????????????????????????? ????? ,??????????????? 1939? ; vii) ??????? ,??????????? C?? Z+?????? 1939??????? ,????????????????? ,??????????? ;?????????????? ,??????????????? ,???????? ,???? ,??????????????????? ,???????????????? ,??? ,??????????? ,?????????? ,????????????????????????????? Messrs Kin Lee & Co.?? ,????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????? ?????????????? (C? D? ,???? ,?????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,???????????? (Machine Aesthetic)? ?????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ,??????????????????????????? ;??????? ,????????? ,????????????????????????? ;?????????????? ,????? ;????????????????????????????????????? ,????????? ,??????? ,???????? ; ?? ,??????? ,???????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????? ;??????????????????????????? ,????????????????????? ,??????????????????? ;???????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????? ,?????????? ,????????????????????? ,????????????? ,??????????????????? ,??????????? ,???????????????? 98????? ,??????????????? ???? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ,????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,???????????? ,???????? ,?????????????? ?? ,??????? ,???????????????????! ???? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ,???????????????????????? ;?? ,??????????????????? ???????????? ,???????? ,?????????????? ?????? ,?????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????? ,??????????????? ??????????? ,???????? 100?? ,?????????? 20,000,?????????????????????????????????? ,????????????? ,???????????????????????? ,???????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????? ,??????????????????? ,??????????????????? ;????????????????????? ,???????????? ,????????????????????? ,????????? ,?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ,????? ,???????????? ,???????????? ,?????????? ,??????????? ,??????????? ,???????????? ,????????? ,????? ,??????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? : 1) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2) 98?? 80%????????? ,???? 97??? 5%? 3) ???? 15%????????????? ????????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????????? ;??? ,?????????????? ,?????? /????? /??????? 97?? 2%??? 6%??? ,???????????? 18%?? 23%,?????????????? 15% ?? 18%?????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? [9] ??????????? ??????? ,????? ,????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????? ,???????????????? ,??????????? ????????? ,??????????????????????????? ;????? ,???????????? (Marginal Utility)??????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????? :???????????????? ????????? ,?????????? ,???????? ,????????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????????????? ,????????????? ,????????????????????????? ,??????????????????? ,?????????????? ??????? :??????? ????????????????? ,????????? ,?????????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????? ,?????????? ,?????????? ,??????????? ,???????????? ,??????????????? ,????????? ,??????????? ???????? ,???????????????????? ,????????????????????? ,???????????? ?????? /???? ?????????????????????????????? ,??????????? ,????????? ,?????? ,??? /?????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ,???? ,??????????????????? ,??????? ,??????????? ,????????????????????? ,???? ,???????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????? ?????? ,???????????????????????????? ,?????? ,???????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????????????? ????? ??????????? ,?????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,??????????????????????????? ,????????? – ???????????????????? ,??????????????????? ???????????????? :1) ????? (???????????????? );2) ????? (?????????????? ;3) ???? (???????????????????? )4) ???? (???????????? )???????????? ,?????? (???????? ,?????? ,???????????????? ,?????? ,????????????? ????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,???????????? ,??????????????????????? (????? ) ???? ??????? ,???????????? – 1. ??? ??????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????? 2. ???? ???????? ,???? ,????? ,?????? 3. ????????? ??????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????? ?????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,???????? 4. ?????? ??????? ,??????????????????????????? ,?????? ,?????? 5. ???????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????? ?????????????? ,?????????????? ,????? 6.???????????????????? ,?????? ,??? /????????????????????? ,??????????? ,???????????????????????????????????? /??????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????? ??????????????????????????? ??????? 1. ????????? (?? ) ?????????????????????? 2. ??????? (??? ) ???????????????????? 3. ???? (??? ) ???????? ,????????????? ,???????????? 4. ??? (??? ) ????????????????????????????? 5. ????? /??? /??? /?????? (?? ) ????????????????????? /??? /????????????????????? ,??????????????????????????? 6. ?? /??? (?? ) ??????????????????? /????????? /??? 7. ?? /??? (?? ,????? ) ??????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? ,??????? 8. ????? (?? ) ???????????? ,???????????? 9. ??? (?? ) ???????????? 10. E & M? ,???????????? (??? ) ? 11. ??? (??? ) 12. ????????????????? (?? ) ? 13. ??? ,???????? (????? ) ? 14. ?????? (??? ) ??????? 15. ??????? (?? ) ? 16. ???? (?? ) ? 17. ???? (????? ) ?????????? 18. ??? (??? ) ?????????????? 19. ????? (??? ) ? 20. ??????? (?? ) ???????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????? ,?????????? ??????? ???????? ,???????????????????????????????? : 1. ??? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2. ??? ?????? ,????? 3. ????? ?????????????? ,???????????????????? ,??????????? 4. ?????? ,??????? ????????? ;? ii????????? ,????????????????? ?? ????????? ,?????????????? ,??????? ,??????????? ????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ,??????????????? : 1. ????????????????????? ,???????????????? 2.???? ,??????????????????????? 2a???????????????????????????? ,??????????????? ,??????????? ,????????????? : ??? ,? 2b???????????????????????????? ,????????????????? 1) ????????????? : ??????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????????? ,?????? ,????????????????????? ,????????????? ?P. S. 1.??? ,???????? ;???????????????????????????????????? [10] ?????????????????????? ?????????? ,?????????????????????????????? ,?????????? ,???????????????????? ????????? /?????????? ,????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????? ,???????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????????? 1. ?? : 1a?????????????????????? ,????????????????? ;? 1b????????????????????????? ,???????????????????? ,????????? ,???? ,??????????? ????????????????????????????? ,??????????????????????? ,??????????? ,????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????! ????????????????? :1)?????????????? ,??????? ,???? ;???????????? ,???? ,????????? ;2)????????? ,???? ,?????? ,???????? ,???????? ,???????? ,??????????????????? ????????????? ,????????????????????????????? ,????????????? ,???? ;3)??????????????????? ,????????????? ;4)???????? ,?????? ,???????????????? ;5)??????? ,????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????? 2. ??? : ???????????????????????? ,????????????????????? (? )????? /????? : ???????????????? ,???????????????? /?????????????? ,??????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????? ??? : ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 7A????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (???? )??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Dr. Morhard, Juergen, Consul of German Consulate (Hong Kong)? Dr. Sacker, director of Goethe-Institute(Hong Kong)? Oscar Ho, exhibition director of HK Arts Centre? Renee Chan, art and design programme designer, HKU-Space? Ben Sumner, senior lecturer of APA? Chartered Society of Designers?
Caroloine Cheng, director of The Pottery Workshop? Lam Yuen Mei? Gary Mak Sing Hei, associate director of Broadway Cinematheque? Cheng Wai Lau, manager of Theatre Ensemble? Irene Ngan, Program Manager of Goethe-Institut? Ip Yuk Yiu, Lecturer of City University? Linda Lai, assistant professor of SCM, City University? Nancy Tong, assistant professor of City University? Cheung Kai Sun, art director of Zebra Consultant? Simon Queeans, publisher of BC Magazine? Leung Chi Fan, vice-president of Hong Kong Society For Education In Art? Hung Chin Lu, director of Studio 22 Ltd.? Leong Ka Tai, director of Camera 22 Ltd.?
Golden Cheetah Company? Wong Leung Sek Rupert, chairman of Hue Art Association? Shum Ka Chun, art dirctor of ICON? Wong Chack Kie, Associate Professor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong? Li Chak Man, project manager of Yew Chung Education Foundation? Siu King Chung, assistant professor of HK Polytechnic University? Tang Shu Wing, artistic director of No Man Land Limited? Tsang Wai Yi Catherine Lau Lui Wai Kei Lam Wai Kit? Lau Chung Hang? Kelvin Tsang? Louisanna Chan? Steve Choi? William Thomas Dixon? Pegsi K C Wong? Betty Hung? Yik Fei? Natashia Ting Clorie Ng? Fanny Lam? Lau Mei Yee? May Fung? Yanpi Kwan Pui Yan?
Wong Shun Kit? Hilary Binks John Thompson Chan Chui Hing, Nose? Mo-yung Yuk Lin Helen Leung Jenny Lam Chi Ling? Lichtenstein, Frederic? Vivian Chan Sau Han? Lee Kit Wai John Yip? Chan Tze Ming Liu Yuen Hung Jacqueline? Sandra L. Walters? Winton non Marsalis? Clarence Tsui Borezee? Blaise Lam Kam Ying? Wong Fung Ming? Tam Shiu Wah Hillman? Norris Ng? Lesley Chan Yan Yan,? Woo Vivian Cheng? Wai Kwan? Alice Chu? Cherie, Cheng Shui Che? Chan Wai Fun Dovas? Lau Wing Yin, Nataue? Kum Chi Keung? Tina Chan? Charles Lam? Maria Leung? Wei Peh Ti? Wong Hao An Alanie? Wong Gi Wai, Gigi? Winnie Lau? Paul Kember? Julita Lui Y. E.?
Juliana Wong? Peter K. Ho? Jan Chu? Pamela Hoy So Ching? Quentin Fong Bryan Lay? Liu Ying Kei Carol? Robert Orien? Freddie Chan? Rachel Lee? Fornia Chan Siu Yim? Beryl Yau? Mimi Tung? Frank Yeung? Kearen Pang Yuri? Ng Lilian Chan?? ?? : ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The Australian Network For Art and Technology? Artspace Visual Arts Centre, Sydney? Chinese Art News Magazine? Marina Grzinic, Fund For Video Art? Griffith Artworks, Griffith University, Australia? Videobrasil Festival, Brazil? Mike Stubbs, director of Hull Time Based Art, UK? Mike Leggett, Australia? Chang Young-Hae, Seoul?
Wolf Kahlen, Germany? Evangelo Costadimas? Uwe Buchler, Werleitz? Gesellschaft, Germany? Steve Hawley, UK? Trevor Batten, Amsterdam? Veronica Needa? core member of Yellow Earth Theatre(London),… ??? :??????????? (?? ) 1. ?? 1.????????? 1. ???????? ,?????????? ,????????????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????????? ,??????????? ,?????????????? ,?????????????????? ,???????????????? ,??????????? ,??????????????? ,???????????????????????? 2. ??????????????????? 118? ,??? 27???? ,???????? ,? 27? ,???????? 10????????? ;????? (9? )???? (8? )???????????? (? 7? ),???? (6? )?????? (? 5? )??? (4? )?????????????? 3???? ,??? 2??????????? ???????? 27???? ,??? 10? ,???????????????????? 4? ,????????????????? ,?? ,????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????? ,???????????? (3? )??? (1? )?????? (6? );?????? (2? )???????? (1? )???? 1? ,??????????? ,??????? ,???????? 2002?????????????? 1????????????????????????????? ,??????????????? [11] 3. ???????????????????? ,????? :??? ,…??????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,?????????????? [12]???? ,????????????? ,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? :?……?????? (??? )???????????? ,???????????????? –????????????????? [13] 4. ????????????? ,?????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ?? ,?????????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????? ,???? ,????????????? ,????????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????…???????????????? 5. ?? ,??????????? : ????????????? ;????????????? ,?????????????? ;?????????????????????? ??????????????? ,???????????? ,?????????????? ,???????????? ,??????? ,??????????? [14] 2. ?? ???????? 1. ?????????? 2. 1. 1???? : ?????????? (Alliance of Artists’ Communities AAC)????????????? (Artists Communities: A Directory of Residencies in the United States Offering Time and Space for Creativity)??? ,???? 70??????????????????????????? 2. ???? : ??????????? ,?????? ?????????????????????????????? ,????????? ,???????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????? 50%???? ,????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????? ,???????????????????????? 4%? ????????????? ,????????????? : .?????? (American Academy in Rome)[15] .????? (The Corporation of Yaddo)[16] .?????? (The MacDowell Colony, Inc. )[17] 70??????????????????????? 80???????????????? ,?? 80????????? ;??????????? ,???????????????????? ,?????????? (????? )???? ,?????????????? ,?????????????????? ,?????????????? ,?????? ,??????????? ???? ,?????????????? ,????????? ,????????? ,??????????? ,???????????? ,???????????????? ,??????????? ?????? ,????? ,??????? 3. ?? : ?????????? ,???????????? (Artist’s House)??????????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????????????????????? ,??????????? ,????????????????? (Kunsterhaus)[18]? ??????????????????? [19],?????????? : A:???? 20???? B:???? 10-19? C:???? 4-9? D:???? 1-3? ???? ,??? 70?????????? ,????? 4-9?? C???????? ,? 40%??? A?? B?? D????? ,?? 20%? ?????????????? ,????????????????????????? ,??????????? ,??????????????????????? :???????? ,???? ,???????????????? ,???????? ,??????????? ,????????????????????? A? ,?????????????????????????????? ,??? C?? 4. ??????? : ????????? ,??????? 20????
A???????????? ,???????????? ,??????????? 2? ,???????????? B???????????? ,??? 14? B????? ,???????????????? ,?????? 2???? ,??????????????????????????????????? 4-9?? C????? ,?????????????????????? ,????????? ,?? C????????? ,???? ,????? ,???????????? D??????????? ,?? 14? ,?????? ,?????????????? ,???????? C???? ,???????????? ?????????????????? :???????? ,???????? ,?????????????????????????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????? ,??????????? ,???????????? ,???????? ,????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????????? ,??????????????????????? 5. ?????? : ??????????????????????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????? [20]??????????????????? ?? |?????? |?? |?? |?? |??? |?? | |?? |???? | | | | | | |?? |??? |?? |??? |?? |??? |?? |??? |?? |??? |?? |??? | |A |12 |86% |0 |0 |1 |7% |0 |0 |1 |7% |0 |0 | |B |10 |72% |2 |14% |1 |7% |0 |0 |1 |7% |0 |0 | |C |18 |64% |2 |7% |3 |11% |2 |7% |1 |4% |2 |7% | |D |8 |58% |2 |14% |0 |0 |2 |14% |2 |14% |0 |0 | |?? |48 |69% |6 |9% |5 |7% |4 |5% |5 |7% |2 |7% | |? (1): ?????????????? ??????????? ,?????????????????? (69%)???????? (9%)??? (7%)???? (7%)??? (5%)?? ,?? 7%????????????????????? ,????????????????????????????? (? A? D??????????? :86%? 72%? 4%? 58%)??????????????????????? ?????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????????????? ??????? ,?????? ,???????? ,???????????????? ,???????????? 2. 1. 6???? : ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ,????????????? ,? 72%??????? 24%,????? ,?? 4%??????????????? ,???? P. S. 1???? I. S. P???????????? ??????????? ,???? ,??????????????????????????????? ,?????? ,????????????? ,????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????? ,????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ,??????? P. S. 1??? ,???????????????? ,???????? ??????????????????????????? :???????……????? ??????? ,??????? ,?????????? ,?? ???????????????? :??????????????????? ,?????????????????? ??????????????????? ,??????????? ,???????????? ,?????????????? [21]??????????? ,????????????????????????? ,???????????????? ,??????? ,????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ,?????? ,??????????????????? ????????????????????????????? ,???????????????? (Conservatoire du Littorale),?????????????????????????????????? ,???????? ,?????????? ,????????????? ,????????? ,??????????????? ,????????????????? [22] ???????? ,???????????????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,??????????????????????????????????????? ???????? ;?????????????????????? ,??????? ,???? ,??????????? ,??????? ,????????????????? ,?????????????????? 7. ??????????? : 1. ?????????? : ??????????? ,???????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????? ,????????????????? ,???????? ,???? : 2. 2. (i)?????? 1) ??????? :????????????????????????? ,?????? ,???? ;???????????????? ,???????????????? ,??????????????? 80%? (2)????? :???????????????????????????? ,???????????? ,??????????????????? ,????????????????????……? ,??????? 80%??? ,????????????????? ,????????????????? ,????????? ,??????????????? ,?????? ,???????????????? 2. 2. (ii)????? (1)????? :???? 93%????? – ??????? ???????????? ,??????????? ,???????????????????????????????????????????? ? (2)????? :?????????????????? ,?????????????? ,????????? ,??????????? ,?? :????????????? ,?????????? ,????????????? 71%? (3)?????? :????????? ,????????? ,????????????????? 39%? 2. 2. (iii)?? (1)???????? :???? 29%? 2) ??????????? :???? 26%? (3)?????????? :???? 23%? (4)???????????? :???? – ?????????????????????????????? ,??????????? ,????????????? ,?????????????? 4%? ????????????? ,??????????????? ,????????????? ,??????????????? 2. 3?? A???????? : 2. 3. 1????????? ,???? A?????? ,??????????? ,?????????????????????????? ,?????????????? ,??????????????? 3%? ???? ,???????? ,????????????????????? ,???????? ?????????? ,???????????????????? ,???????? ;??????? ,????????????????????????????? 2. ????????????? : ?? 70????? ,??????????? ,????????? : i) ??? : ???? ,??????????? ii) ??? : ?????????? ,??????????????????? ,????????????????????? iii) ??? : ???? ,???????????????? ???????????????? ,???? 97%????????????? 2? ,??? Art Farm? Bemis Center for Contemporary Arts,??????????? ,??????? 3%?????? ,?? South Florida Art Center,?? 4?????????? ,????????? ,? 9%? ???????????????????????????? ,???????????????????????????? ,?????????? ,???????????????????????? ,????????????

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more