Part 2 A critical Analysis of my own approach to reflective practice and exploration of potential continuing personal and professional development. Introduction This report provides a critical self analysis of my approach to reflective practice and exploration of continuing personal and professional practice. To research this report I have had to undertake a profound and honest dissection and evaluation of my own working practice.
For research I partook in discussions with my peers, attended a master class in learning on reflection, and explored the internet and relevant books. This includes examining theories of reflective practice and how they relate to my own reflective practice and development. To clarify what I needed to examine I started by finding definitions of the key phrases. More in-depth analysis of the definitions and the meanings attached by others are developed throughout the report.
Reflective Practice- ‘a set of abilities and skills, to indicate the taking of a critical stance, an orientation to problem solving or state of mind. ’ (Moon 1999 cited on www. ukle. ac. uk 2009) Continual Personal and Professional Development- ‘maintaining, improving and broadening relevant knowledge and skills in your subject specialism and your teaching and training, so that it has a positive impact on practice and the learner development. (www. ifl. ac. uk 2009) Methodology
Whilst preparing this assignment my Primary research was collated by using both personal observation and informal personal interviews with fellow peer groups, I conducted my Secondary research by colleting existing data gathered from both my Primary research as well as using the internet in order to access reviews, government statements and information as well as theories and principles used and developed by educational experts, I have also used the Doncaster College library to access reference material in the form of books and the e-library and as an additional reference method.
I also adopted various ideas gained by conducting semi structured interviews and focus groups using other teachers as my target group. Once evaluating the collected data I then developed an Action Plan in order to achieve my desired goals. Theories of reflective practice. The Common Sense Theory Philosopher and educationalist John Dewey pioneered the concept of reflective practice in 1933 as the literal notion of ‘thinking about thinking’ (cited in www. educ. uats. org 2010) He was primarily interested in problem solving.
When a bad incident occurs you feel upset or disconcerted and set out to identify and rectify the issue. This basic approach to reflective practice was further developed as the ‘common sense view’ by Moon (1999). She took the stance ’reflection is akin to thinking but with more added to this. ’ (cited in Roffey-Barentsen and Malthouse 2009, p8) This is reflection in its purest form. After a lesson that that went badly it is natural that you will think about what went wrong and why. The sheer basic nature of the theory leads to problems of lack of organization and documentation.
The solitary nature of simply thinking cause limitations when there is no one to provide feedback. There is more consideration given to the past than the future and provides limited outlets for developing practice. Reflective Practice Donald Schon (1983) developed two concepts in relation to reflective practice: Reflection in action – A person reflects on behavior as it occurs. For example if you are using a classroom activity with learners that is clearly not working you would quickly reflect on this can find a suitable alternative immediately rather than waiting for the next session.
Reflection on action -this type of reflection occurs after the event allowing time for scrutiny and analysis of the situation and time to plan further development. Kolb (1984) created his four stage model of leaning. This encompasses the continued cycle of learning. It outlines the basic concept of doing something. Reflecting on it. Researching ways of improving upon it and planning how to implement this. This brings you right back to the doing stage and so the cycle continues. This can be joined at any stage but needs to be followed in sequence to be effective.
Graham Gibbs further developed this cycle in 1988. Like Kolb, his cycle of self reflection is simple to use and follows a continuous cycle. Gibbs Model for Reflection (www,qmu. ac. uk 2009) Stephen Brookfield (1995) believes critically reflective teaching happens when we identify and scrutinize assumptions that under grid how we work. For this the occur we must see our teaching from the view of the “four critical lenses”’(cited in Roffey-Barentsen and Malthouse 2009,p10 ). The four lenses being: 1. The teacher 2. The learners 3. Our Colleagues . The view of literature and theories. Although time consuming this theory provides a thorough reflection on our practice through feedback and research rather than just our own thoughts. Professional Reflective Practice This theory combines the personal achievements generated via reflective practice with the benefits of CPD where teachers improve skills and knowledge enhances their professional performance. Tummons (2007, p89) describes this as ‘A constant critical appraisal of teaching and learning, and of the work of the tutor generally. Ideals from Schon, Kolb, Gibbs and other theorists can be encompassed in professional reflective practice this ideal would include seminars, workshops, conferences, meetings, training days, 1. 1 reviews, observations and general conversations. Having identified what you could do to benefit your practice you would create an action plan clearly defining SMART targets My approach to reflective practice I have in the past relied too heavily on Moon’s ‘common sense’ theory. Thinking is a natural process we have little or no control over.
I have often delivered a session with my head buzzing with thoughts and ideas; these would take on the form of what went well? What did’t goes well? Why? What can I do instead? This thought process of ideas has its benefits. I was analyzing my teaching practice rather than simply carrying on with no consideration to its merits. The main problems being that I rarely wrote my reflections down. There was no organization or structure to the reflective practice. This form of reflection is too insular and self reliant.
When I first started teaching I think I probably lacked the confidence to actively seek the views of others and accept constructive criticism. Since undertaking the DTLLS course I have as a prerequisite of learning kept a reflective journal. This method of reflection links in with Schon’s ‘Reflection on Action. ’ Actually taking time to stop and write down reflection has been very beneficial This allows time for greater and more structured evaluation identifying what went well and want didn’t’ go so well. From here I am able to plan what I need to improve upon. Schon (1983) also outlines ‘action in practice. I found this concept of ‘thinking on your feet’ a necessity of teaching. A session plan may sometimes no longer be valid. I have in the past had to a change activities that require certain numbers due to poor attendance. Similarly if I unexpectedly have a small group I may not use planned resources such as flipchart which seem impersonal for only four learners. As my teaching experience has developed so has my capacity for reflection. Drawing on Brookfield’s critical lenses. I am now more confident and aware of the benefit of feedback to seek the views of learners, peers, mentors etc.
This creates a greater spectrum of reflection rather than simply my own to learn from. Gibbs reflective cycle (1988) has become a natural part of my teaching and reflective practice. This is especially beneficial with one day courses I teach again and again. In this situation it is easy to become complacent and lazy and stick with same session plan. Actively reflecting with feedback from others enables me find methods of improving the session. I then can try out the new plan. Once tried I then reflect on the new plan and so the cycle continues.
Of course I wouldn’t make change for change sake. The out come of the reflection could be that it all went well in that session. Continual Personal and Professional Development As a teacher when considering CPPD I have two consider what The IFL defines as the ‘Model of Dual Professionalism’ (www. ilf. co. uk) Your subject specialsim Your teaching In both instances I need to undertake an analysis to identify training and development needs. I am still a teacher in training so my professionalism is continually developing through my college studies which includes much research.
In my work place I have attended training days on relevant teaching areas such as coaching your team and Giving and Receiving Feedback and conferences such as E-Leaning and Final Lap Mentoring. Once my training is complete I will need to actively seek development opportunities in this area. I could do this through the ILF, College network, educational websites, publications and productions. The opportunities for personal and professional development in the Health and Social Care Profession are considerable. Keeping up to date with relevant legislation is paramount.
Generally literature is provided on this by the Care Quality Commission or MHA Head office. For instance I recently went on a training day on delivering e-learning. However as an educationalist it is vital I don’t just assume there are no changes if no one has informed me other wise. The QCC website is the best reference point on legislation. Specific area of my role such as manual handling, Fire Safety and First aid require me to update my trainer’s skills with a refresher course every two or three years.
As I teach in a company that specializes in Dementia care it is vital I actively seek new knowledge in this area. Ideas and Theories on Dementia and Dementia care are constantly progressing and it is vital I progress inline with them. To aid this read the Dementia Care magazine, Alzheimer’s Society website, Bradford and Stirling University both research in dementia care. A positive example of this is an article I read on the benefits of Doll Therapy. Some of the residents in the home carry dolls around which some cares found inappropriate.
Having a professional theory to discuss with staff/Learners was highly beneficial. All development I do for my work has an effect on my personal development. The increase in skills and knowledge gives me more confidence and expands my creativity. In my free time I enjoy reading and creative writing and have taken relevant courses for pleasure. I have in the past been to work obsessed and taking on to many courses at once. This resulted stress and affected all areas of my life. I now can prioritise my CPPD to allow me time to relax and spend time on other things that are important.
When I started DTLLS I was also doing an Open University course. I found it too hard to juggle both and working. I made a decision to complete the OU module I was studying and put my university studies on hold until I have completed DTLLS. Conclusion I can link my reflective practice to most of the theorists. The common sense view’ of quite literally thinking is something I do constantly but I have learnt the benefits of taking a more structured and creative approach to reflection. Working through a cycle of doing, reflecting, researching, planning and doing means my teaching practice can only improve.
This has given me more confidence and benefits the learners. Linking in reflective practice with CPPD ensures my development as a teacher and a subject specialist. Through my work place I am able to identify training and development needs with my manager. As an autonomous learner is vital I constantly Seek new avenues to ensure my Health and Social Care knowledge is up-to-date and relevant. 1. Report Introduction For this report I have provided a critical analysis which summarises the following aspects of my ongoing personal and professional development in the following areas: Teaching roles and contexts within the lifelong learning sector * Impact of own beliefs, assumptions and behaviours on learners and others * Impact of own professional, personal and interpersonal skills, including Literacy, Numeracy and ICT skills on learners and others. To carry out this report I have used my personal reflective journal. I have also drawn on past assignments, observations, peer group discussions. I researched books, journals and the internet to gain a wider perspective. Analysing my own role as Trainer and comparing it with others such lecturers nd tutors highlights the similarities as well as exploring the unique aspects that define each role. As an individual and a teacher it is difficult to recognise and at times accept that your personal beliefs, assumptions and behaviours may impinge on learners. In this report I recognise my ‘teaching schemata’ and explore both positive and negative effects this may have on learners and others. This links in with the analysis I have made on how my personal, professional and interpersonal skills will have an impact on learners and others. Part 3 A Teaching roles and contexts within the lifelong learning sector
The table below explores the different roles and contexts within the lifelong learning sector, analysing their similarities and differences. All definitions of roles are taken form: The Chambers Dictionary 10th Edition (2006) Job Role| Contexts| Duties| Same as| Difference| Trainer‘A person who teaches skills to people or animals and prepares them for a job, activity or sport’ | The workplaceCommunity Learning CentresTraining companies| * Identifying company training needs. * Designing, delivering and evaluating training. * Developing induction and appraisal schemes. Coaching and assessing individuals or small groups * * | Similarities to teacher, tutor, lecturer in terms of planning and delivering learning. Also assessments. | A trainer is generally work based as apposed to teachers or lecturers who are college or school based. | Teacher‘A person whose profession is to impart knowledge practical skill or understanding’| SchoolsSixth form colleges| * Panning sessions * Delivering learning * Evaluation of teaching and learning * Setting and marking working * Monitoring and dealing with behavioural issues. Tutor, trainer and lecturer in terms of planning and delivering learning. Dealing with behaviour is most akin to lecturers. | Different to most in that a teacher is generally associated with schools and children. Some sixth form colleges may have teachers. | Tutor‘A person who teaches a single person or very small group’| Colleges Community Learning CentresDistance and online learning. | * Planning and delivering learning to individual or small groups. * Providing feedback on assessments * Tutor may be a mentor for learning development such as a form tutor or individual tutor. Similarities to teacher, trainer, lecturer in terms of planning and delivering learning. | More 1-1 work than lecturersDifferent from all if online or distance learning. | LecturerA person who teaches at college or university| CollegeUniversities| * Teaching, lectures, seminars and fieldwork. Preparing teaching sessions and developing teaching materials. Setting and marking work. | Similarities to teacher, trainer, lecturer in terms of planning and delivering learning. | Different to NVQ and Trainer in context.
Lecturers would not be found in workplace| Assessor‘Person who assesses’| CollegeWorkplace| * Plan and deliver NVQ workshops * Observe and assess candidates * Examine candidates’ evidence| Similar to trainer in that learning is work based. | Different to teacher and lecturer as an assessor will not deliver learning to large groups. | Part 3 b My role and responsibilities as a Trainer in Health and Social Care work-based learning Through discussions in the DTTLS course I have identified two major differences between my role as a Trainer and my peers as Lecturers.
The first being that of context . My teaching is carried out in individual’s own workplace. Learning is delivered in a training room and in the care environment. Lecturers deliver learning in a college in a traditional classroom setting. The two do at times overlap, workplace learners may work towards vocational qualifications through local colleges. In this case I may arrange for learners to undertake this learning and support them through their work. The other main variation is in purpose. I facilitate learners with skills and knowledge to enable them to function in the workplace.
Learners gain company certification or in some cases nationally recognised awards, however they are not working for one or two years towards an educational or vocational qualification as they would in a college. In unit 15 I explored the difference between teaching and training. Gary Pollice, Professor of Practice Worchester University noted this main difference. In his article Teaching Versus Training (2003). He stated training ‘focuses on skill’ whereas teaching ‘implies deeper knowledge and a longer time frame. ’ This effectively sums up one of the major differences I identified.
As a trainer in Health and Social Care it is my responsibilities to ensure my knowledge is kept up-to-date and in line with current legislation, polices, procedures and changing views and ideas within the care sector. Not doing so would have a detrimental effect on learning and the working practice of learners. I am constantly aware that my CPPD will have a direct impact on the quality of training I provide. In unit 5 I examined the aims and philosophical issues associated with my subject specialism. These were derived mainly from CQC and MHA care group.
The ultimate aim being to provide the best possible person centred care for service users. I work closely as part of a team to ensure this is provided. I liaise with senior staff to discuss any new developments within care and the impact they will have on learning and working practice. I often attend the same training, seminars and conferences as senior staff. This ensures we all have the same knowledge and skills Transference of skills has a major influence on how I and others measure the quality of the training I provide.
Howarth and Morrison (2005, p295) observed how effective transfers are ‘affected by a range of factors beyond the design and delivery of a training event. ’ I work with key people to make sure skills and knowledge are effectively passed on to staff and reflected in the care provided. If this is not the case then I may need to reassess my own skills and knowledge. Part 3 C The Impact of my own beliefs, assumptions and behaviours on learners and others. As an individual it is difficult to recognize our own ingrained beliefs, assumptions let alone comprehend the impact these may have an others.
As a teacher the impact can be magnified as others look to us to learn. In an article Focus on Teacher thinking it was stated Everything a teacher says and does springs from the teacher’s inner reality – the worldview, beliefs, values and other thinking processes that are so familiar they become invisible (www. teachersinmind. com) When I enter a classroom/training room I like to think I put my professional hat on and leave my personal influences behind. Williams and Burden ((1997, p57) however would disagree ‘Teachers beliefs about learning will affect everything they do in the classroom. To identify my own personal influences I have examined some elements of my unique ‘Teaching Schemata’ (wwww,prodait,org 2006) . This is the amalgam of beliefs , knowledge and assumptions held by the individual teacher. Elements of my personal ‘Teaching Schemata’ | * I believe it is important to have basic ICT, Literacy and numeracy skills * Reading is fun * Learning enriches your life * ICT is an inevitable part of day to day life * I think everyone should want to reach their full potential * Adults should naturally adhere to a certain code of conduct in a learning environment. Adults want to learn * Music has positive benefits on your mental well being * I love anything outdoors. * I’m a vegetarian and animals are an important part of my life * I was brought up C of E but no longer practice or believe. * Monogamy is important * I used to be shy at school but now I’m outgoing * I tend to adopt a ‘ce la vive’ attitude to life. If it makes you happy then do it! * I’m very easy going and rarely loose my temper. * People should always see the best in others and try to understand why they behave the way they do. The list above is by no means exhaustive but includes what I consider to be my main belief system. I would generally consider my positive and friendly personality to have a constructive benefit on learners. I’m proud of the fact that learners enjoy their learning and in all my observation it was commented that I had an excellent rapport with learners. In unit 15 I drew on an element of my reflective journal where this rapport had a negative effect. Four learners failed to turn up when I was being observed. I took his a personal insult, but it was pointed out to me by a colleague that it was because I was so easy going that they probably thought I wouldn’t be annoyed. The concept of achieving an equal balance between my natural friendly personality and adopting a more professional persona when necessary is an area I have developed but need to continue to do so. I have attended courses in assertiveness and influencing and negotiating to aid my development in this area. Discussing ideas with other teachers has helped significantly. In my very initial stages of teaching I made a basic mistake due to my somewhat supercilious assumptions.
When setting up a learner, a lady of around 50yrs, on E-Learning I simply gave her the laptop, password and username and told her to log on to the Aims Perform site. I went off to sort out some paperwork while she did this. When I returned I found an embarrassed learner who hadn’t even switched the laptop on. She sheepishly told me she’d never used a computer before. The impact for the learner was that of humiliation and a failure to learn. For myself it was an early learning curve in never making assumptions about learners existing abilities.
Although I’m still surprised how many people don’t have their own computer and have little or no ICT skills I have learnt to adjust my perception and address the situation in a manner that does not embarrass or humiliate the learner. Gaining an awareness of the extent to which adult learners may lack basic skills has had an effect on my professional development. I have actively sought ways to integrate key skills into learning. Care for Skills agency provide extensive resources and information on enabling teachers to embed key skills into the care induction programme.
The impact on learners is that I, as a teacher am more in tune to learning needs and an increased opportunity to improve their key skills through work based learning. Also I taught a fully integrated course with New College which improved my skills in key skills teaching. Part 3 D The impact of my own Professional, Personal and Interpersonal skills including Literacy, Numeracy and ICT Skills on Learners and others Trainer/Teacher My teaching qualifications PTTLS and year 2 DTTLS have given me significant skills and knowledge in this area. This impacts on what I am able to offer my place of work and learners.
This includes planning, delivering and evaluating individual sessions and schemes of work. Also carrying out diagnostic assessments, assessing learning, being aware learning styles and learning theories, designing and using resources. The more skills I have as a teaching professional the greater opportunity I will have to maximise the learning potential of the workplace learner at MHA. Management will have greater confidence in giving me greater responsibilities such as designing courses. I have also joined the Institute For Learning (IFL) as an affiliate member whilst working towards qualified teacher status.
The IFL gives members support in continuing professional development. The IFL state: CPD gives the public, learners, the teaching community and the sector confidence that teachers, trainers, tutors and assessors are continuously improving skills and knowledge and expertise (www. ilf. ac. uk, 2009) Health and Social Care Professional As I have a dual profession there is little point in me solely focussing on my teaching skills. It is equally as important that I monitor my knowledge of my subject specialism. My learners need to have confidence that I have a higher level of knowledge of the subject than they do.
The care provider I work for need to know that I am facilitating training that is current and relevant. In unit 15 I stated that one of my best assets was having what Skills for Care (2009) describe as ‘experts by experience. ’ Having years of hands on experience in the care sector not only equips me we a high level of skills and knowledge but also gives learners confidence that I know what they experience in the workplace. To keep my care skills current and relevant I attend the same training, conferences and seminars I would as if I still worked in the field. Personal Development
My personal development can also have an affect on learners. Having a good level of work and life balance make me a calmer and more rounded person. Much of my personal development such as creative writing enhances my creative abilities as a teacher. I initially started my degree with the Open University for personal development rather than professional. I started with a course I knew I would enjoy – Level 2 Creative Writing. This required me to post my work on an online tutorial for others to give feedback on. Similarly I was required to give feedback on the work of others.
This enhanced my ability to accept feedback from managers, teachers, college peers and learners. This in turn assisted me to provide constructive feedback to my peers and learners which is something I have difficulty with. Interpersonal Skills My interpersonal skills have developed as my confidence has grown. Looking back on my reflective journal from last year I can see there were times when I lost deportment in sessions when learners asked questions I was unsure of, didn’t participate in sessions or were deliberately awkward as they didn’t want to be in the session.
This had a detrimental effect on learners and myself as I felt they would loose confidence in my ability to teach them. I over come this through feedback, talking to other teachers and simply by gaining experience. My most recent observation demonstrated how much my confidence has improved. This reflects on the quality of learning learners receive. On a general level I feel I have good interpersonal skills. Working in the care sector for years has given me strong emotional intelligence. I am easily able to empathize with other. I am able to actively listen, thus making me an effective communicator.
I have been able to develop appropriate communication skills. Initially I was too much of a friend to learners and didn’t want to offend anyone. I found sugar coating feedback was non productive. I have managed to improve my balance my as a teacher, giving constructive feedback and delivering enjoyable sessions. Numeracy Numeracy is not my strongest point. I have GCSE grade C which I achieved 18 years ago. When I worked at Penhill Community learning centre working 1-1 with learners to gain entry level 3 and level 1;2 numeracy awards I was concerned about my own numeracy levels and ability to help others.
I went on the Move On website to test and improve my abilities. When I started the PTTLS course I was required to take an assessment on the computer to check for skills fade. Thankfully I had a clear level 2 pass. Although numeracy is not a strong element in Health and Social care it is still important to maintain my skills in this area. I embed numeracy in areas where learners will uses it in their workplace such as weights, measurements, BMIs and statistics. This will impact on their ability to perform everyday tasks at work. ICT I have fairly good ICT skills.
This has enabled me to facilitate e-learning confidently. This has helped learners to access and undertake courses they may not have had access to otherwise. e-learning enhances learners own ICT skills which will benefit them in the workplace and wider society. One area I had to develop was using ICT in presentations. My workplace did not have facilities for this so I had little opportunity to practice. I felt this limited my resources and didn’t account for exclusivity with regards to learning styles. My first attempt at PowerPoint presentation was for my presentation was to my peers at college.
I was pleased to have produced and presented a presentation even if I did forget to put it on slide show! Feedback from my peers and my own reflection identified this as an area of weakness. I have since convinced my workplace to buy more equipment. I am now confident in using the projector for presentations. This enhances learners experience including participating in e learning in groups. Literacy Literacy is an area I am quite proficient in and had passed university modules in with good grades. I enjoy reading and creative writing in my free time.
I do however have to be aware of the language I use and the levels I expect of others. Many of my learners will be at entry level 3 or lower so I need to keep language in resources simple. Through initial assessments I can identify what level learners are at. I embed literacy into learning. The Skills for Care Base have excellent resources I have used to enable learners with literacy. The fact that I enjoy reading means I am always keen to research my subject this will enrich the knowledge I can impart on learners. Conclusion
My dual role as a teacher and a Health and Social Care Professional effectively means I I have two areas where I need to actively monitor, evaluate and accomplish continuing personal and professional development. Clearly identifying my role and responsibilities can enable me to pursue relevant avenues. Being aware of my own beliefs, assumptions and behaviours and the impact they may have on learners and others is difficult but essential. Through course of action I realised my assumptions about adult learners existing skills was having a detrimental effect on their learning.
As a teacher my own personal, professional and interpersonal skills have a major impact on learners, as they are looking to me to facilitate knowledge and skills. The organization I work for is trusting in my skills to carry out my role efficiently. Not doing so could have a damaging effect on the care service users receive and the reputation of the establishment. This highlights the importance of CPPD. Words 3116 Bibliography Books Gray, G. Cundell, S. Hay, D. O’Neill, J. (2004) Learning Through the Workplace. Nelsonthorne: Cheltenham Horwath, J. Morrisson T. 2004) Effective Staff Training in Social Care Routledge: Abingdon Roffey-Barentsen, J and R ,Malthouse. Reflective Practice in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Learning Matters: Exeter Tummons, J. (2007) Becoming a Tutor in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Learning Matters: Exeter Wallace, S. Teaching and Tutoring in The Lifelong Learning Sector. Learning Matters: Exeter Internet Code of Professional Practice www. ifl. ac. uk Communication and number skills at induction and beyond www. scie-careskillsbase. org. uk (accessed 31/08/2009) Continuing Profesional Development www. fl. ac. uk Critical Reflection on Teaching www. prodait. org (accessed 17/02/2010) Education and Training – Job Profiles http://carersandadvice. direct. gov,uk Focus on Teacher Thinking www. teachersmind. com. topics. htm (accessed 17/10/2010) Gibbs Model of Reflection www. qmu. ac. uk (accessed 04/01/2010) Gary Pollice:Teaching versus training http://www. ibm. com/developer works/rational/library (accessed 10/08/09) Methodist Homes Association http://www. mha. org. uk (accessed 30/8/09) http://www. skillsforcare. org. uk/workforce_strategy (acesssed30/08/2009) Muir, G.
Theories of Adult Education Teacher Versus Facilitator www. adulteducation. eu/Theories. of-adult-education (accessed 19/08/2009) Reflection and Reflective Practice www. learningandteaching. info/learning/reflecti. htm (accessed 30/01/2010) Reflective Practice www. educ. utas. edu. ac (accessed 30/01/2010 Social Care Institute for Excellence www. scie-caebase. orguk Quality Care Commission www. cqc. org (accessed 10/08/09) What is reflective practice ? www. ukcle. ac. uk (accessed 06/03/2010) What is the Difference Between a Teacher and a Trainer? http:/society. com/education
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