Characteristics of Philosophical Reasoning

How is the use of reasoning into the framework of my thesis research plan? Answer . a. Characteristics of Philosophical Reasoning Before directly answering the questions above, I’ll describe a little understanding of philosophical reasoning itself. According JuJunSuriasumantri, Reasoning is a thinking process in drawing a conclusion in the form of knowledge. So reasoning is the thinking process started from empirical observation that produces a number of concepts and understanding. As an activity of thinking reasoning has certain haracteristics.
The first feature is a logical thought process, which is defined as logical thinking activities according to certain patterns or in other words according to certain logic. The second characteristic is the nature of the analytical thinking process. Analytic properties are the consequence of the existence of a certain thought pattern. The analysis is essentially an activity of thinking based on certain measures. Also according to JintutNocturna, the characteristics of reasoning that is thorough, fundamental, and speculative. The nature of its thinking is comprehensive.
A philosopher does not know the content of science is only from the perspective of science itself, but they wanted to see the nature of science in the perspective of others. They wanted to connect science with other aspects. They wanted to know the relation of science to morals and regard science with religion. They wanted to believe what science knows that can bring benefit or not. That is the idea that broad because it does not have limit itself and not Just in terms of one particular viewpoint. Thought philosophical want to know the relationship between sciences with others science, relationships between moral cience, art and life goals.

The nature of its thinking is fundamental. A philosopher does not believe it the truth the knowledge gained. They were always in doubt and questioning: Why science can be called the true? How the assessment process based on these criteria is? Is the criterion true? Then what is its own right? Like a circle and any questions always arise continuously. That is, thinking until the results of a fundamental or essential objectscan be learned for all the rationale and scientific value. So, do not Just stop at peripheries(skin), but penetrating into its depths. The ature of its thinking is speculative.
Philosophers speculate on the truth. Speculative nature of it, is also a philosopher continue to test and then gave birth to a knowledge and can answer the question of the validity of the trust. Based on the characteristics is an activity that uses the potential for the widest possible sense and freely without being limited by anything radically, systematically, universal and comprehensive as well as speculative and fundamental in revealing the nature of a truth. It is the ideas obtained and provide a basis for further thinking. The results of its thought were lways intended as a basis for exploring a new area of knowledge.
Based on characteristics of the philosophy of the above , it can be concluded that philosophy is an activity that uses the broadest reasonable potential and freely without being restricted by anything radically,sistematic universal , comprehensive and non- speculative and fundamental in nature reveals the truth . That is, the ideas that come form the basis for further thoughts . The results of his thought was always intended as a basis for exploring new areas of knowledge. In the preparation of the thesis , ust be based on scientific studies that can be proven.
Scientific knowledge is based A. Ontology Ontology is a branch of philosophy that talks about that there . In terms of science , the foundation of ontology questioned about objects that can be studied by science , what its essential form , and how it relates to human perception such as thinking , feeling , and clicking sense led to knowledge. Ontology is the study of objects that are not visible on one particular embodiment , which discusses that there are universal , that is trying to find a core that is loaded every fact which encompasses all of reality n all its forms .
The existence of all things is an aspect of reality that transcends all differences between the objects and living beings , between the types and individuals . Of the discussion raises some views that are grouped into multiple streams of thought namely Materialism Flow is said that the essence of everything that exists is matter . Something there ( le material ) may only born there. Idealism(spiritualism) This stream replied weaknesses of materialism , which says that it is precisely the nature of spiritual beings (spiritual ) . Is the idea that spiritual world is more real han the material .
Dualism The flow of material and wanted to unite the ideas , which argues that the essence of beings ( the fact ) in this universe is composed of two sources , namely the material and the spiritual Agnosticism This flow is the opinion of the philosophers who take a skeptical attitude , which is free of any answers that may be true and it may not. B. Epistemology Object study epistemology is questioning how something is coming and how to find out, how to differentiate with others . So with regard to the circumstances of time and space about something .
Epistemological foundation is what allows the process of getting knowledge of logic , ethics , aesthetics , and the procedure how to obtain scientific truth , moral goodness and beauty of art , and what is the definition . Examines moral epistemology about the epistemic evaluation of moral Judgment and moral theories. In epistemology appears multiple streams of thought,namely : Meaningful experience ( emperies ) , where human knowledge acquired from sensory experience . Rationalism Without denying the huge benefits of sensory experiences in human life , but the erception of the senses is only used to stimulate the intellect .
So the sense is above the sensory experience and emphasize the deductive method. Positivism A synthesis of empiricism and rationalism . By taking the point of departure from empiricism , but have sharpened the experiment , which is able to objectively determine the validity and reliability of knowledge . Intuitionism Intuition is not the same as feeling , however, is the result of understanding the evolution of high that only human . The ability to understand the full truth , which is fixed and unique . C. Axiology Axiology is the philosophical value . This aspect is related to the value of the (1 ) good and bad , and (2) beautiful and ugly .
The first category of category : value under the study of philosophy called ethics or behavior , while the second category is the object of the study of philosophy or aesthetic beauty. Ethics also called moral philosophy ethics ( moral philosophy) , which comes from the word ethos ( Greek ) which means character . Moral derived from the word mos or mores ( Latin ) which means habit . In the Indonesian term is defined moral or ethical decency . Material object of ethics is human behavior or actions , being the object of a formal ethics is good or bad , moral or immoral. Human morality is the object of study ethic that has aged very long .
Since human society is formed , which is in accordance with the behavioral issues of morality have been discussed . Associated with it , then came two theories that explain how a behavior that can be measured ethically . The theory in question is Deontological and Theological . a. Deontological . Deontological theories inspired by the thought of Immanuel Kant , who seem rigid , onservative and preserve the status quo , which states that the merits of a behavior is assessed in terms of the act itself , and not the result . A good behavior if that behavior fit the existing norms . b.
Theological Theological theory more emphasizing results . A piece of good behavior if the behavior is much more profitable than harm , where gains and losses are seen from the indicators of human interest . This theory raises two views , namely egoism and utilitarianism ( utilisme ) . People who teach is Jeremy Bentham (1742 – 1832) , which is then corrected by John Stuart Mill ( 1806-1873 ) . ?Aesthetics Aesthetics are also called beauty philosophy ( philosophy of beauty) , which is derived from the word aisthetika or aisthesis ( Greek ) which means that the things that can be perceived by the senses or sensory perception .
Discuss aesthetic issues related to critical reflection on values over something called Indak or not beautiful . On the way from the era of ancient Greek philosophy until now appears the question of aesthetics , namely : what is the question that beauty , the beauty that is both objective and subjective , the beauty of the size , the role of beauty in human life and he beauty of the relationship with the truth .
So the question was being debated attractive especially if it is associated with religion and the values of decency , because they never reach completion. b. How to Use On Such reasoning In My Thesis Research Plan? From the description of the reasoning characteristics above can be described that in scientific research on my thesis should refer to the three scientific studies that can be proved. Scientific knowledge based on ontology, Epistemology and Axiology.
In this case I plan on studying”The Use of Portfolio Assessment in English Language Course of Samarinda Polytechnic Students” In this case, first of all I relate my research to the study of ontology in relation to science, the foundation of ontology questioned about the objects studied by science, how is the essential form, and how it relates to human perception in the form of thinking, feeling, and senses that produce the knowledge.
Here, I will review first the definition of the assessment itself, including the types of assessment that exist in the world of education, then I describe of these species leads to the portfolio assessment and its definition. After that I gave evidence o the theory of portfolio assessment that has been around for examples of this include also the terms of portfolio assessment itself. After reviewing the terms of ontology, I will review my research in terms of epistemology.
ObJect of the study in epistemology is questioning how something is coming and how to find out, how to distinguish with the other. So this part will deal with regard to the circumstances of space and time about something. The cornerstone of epistemology is what is the process to get the knowledge by logic, ethics, aesthetics, and the procedure and how o obtain scientific truth, moral goodness also beauty of art, and what the definition. Epistemic moral of epistemology examines the evaluation of moral judgments andmoral theories.
From the foundation of epistemology above, I can describe my research on these processes in which this study took place during the assessment was given in one semester and then the results are measured from the students who follow courses in English. From the view of epistemology, my scientific research shows how the sequence of events and portfolio assessment process was ut in place, and inside there are also barriers faced by faculty and students in the provision of portfolio assessment and also the excess deficiency.
Assessment indicators are also included in the review epistemology which I will discuss in my research. The third study that will be entered in my thesis that scientific research based on the view of Axiology. Axiology is the philosophical value. Aspects of this value is related to the following categories: (1) good and bad, and (2) beautiful and ugly. The first category of value under the study of philosophy called ethics or ehavior, while the second category is an object of the study of philosophy or aesthetic beauty.
In relation to my thesis of scientific research, which involves study of axiology or the value of research results to the people, in this case the use of portfolios can provide benefits and can be used in the assessing of English language and be reviewed again if it can increase the score of the English language Samarinda Polytechnic Students. In addition, my research is certainly has the weaknesses that can be added to further research in subsequent studies, so that the value and enefits of this research is philosophically continues to grow and not static at one JuJun S, Suriasumantri, Filsafat Ilmu, Sebuah Pengantar Populer.

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